But the Balkan country is facing other serious obstacles, says regional expert Alida Vracic. This was one of the main conditions required by the European Union in order to grant Bosnia membership candidate status. Germany, along with Great Britain, reinforced its engagement in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Germany is the key decision maker for Bosnia and Herzegovina, but also more widely for the region.
Material cost-benefit calculations determined Member State preferences towards enlargement; and the costs for the incumbents explain why the enlargement process took so long and why the accession treaties were rather unfavourable to the new Member States. However, 10 years after the first eastern enlargement 5 that was so strongly associated with ending the division of Europe, attitudes towards further enlargement are distinctly negative, both among EU citizens and Member State governments.
Is this increasing opposition the result of the impact that these earlier eastern enlargements had on the EU? Did a negative impact of enlargement on the EU undermine the continued integration of the continent through further enlargement?
And even if EU enlargement without doubt contributes to the integration of the two halves of the continent, to what extent has enlargement helped to overcome the division of the continent - specifically with regard to the spread of democracy? I explore whether these negative attitudes stem from the impact that eastern enlargement had on the EU in two key areas: This review suggests that instead of the impact of earlier enlargements, the current aversion to enlargement is partly a government response to perceived cultural threats and anti-immigration sentiments in public opinion.
Partly opposition is also due to structural difficulties in the current candidates that make it more challenging to meet the requirements for EU accession. The democratic front-runners among the post-communist countries democratised without much influence of the EU.
At the other end of the spectrum, the EU was fairly powerless in countries with illiberal governments. But once the new governments carried out political reforms that brought the country closer to accession, these reforms were maintained even if the previous governing parties returned to power.
Such parties usually had to moderate their electoral platforms to appeal to voters; and once elected, as they also had to fear an electoral backlash if they endangered the progress that had been made towards EU accession through reversing democratic reforms.
However, the majority requirements in the European Council and the European Parliament to use Article 7 are extremely demanding. However, despite the decline in the leverage of EU institutions towards illiberal practices in the Member States after accession, a first comprehensive study undertaken five years after eastern enlargement found no systematic evidence of a backsliding in the post-communist new member states.
Finally, there has been some deterioration in the quality of democracy in four of the ten post-communist new members, 10 namely in Latvia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary.
Backsliding is most pronounced in Latvia and Bulgaria, where democracy quality has declined persistently since and respectively, while in Romania which had been already lagging behind the other Member States and Hungary, the deterioration is a more recent dip.
These drops in democratic quality in Hungary since and Romania in can be directly attributed to specific behaviour of their governments, which in turn amounted to a crucial challenge for EU institutions to rein in breaches of liberal democratic values in the Member States.
Through these constitutional changes, the government has concentrated and entrenched its power in ways that contravene the principles of liberal democracy without, however, formally violating the rule of law.
For example, it weakened the constitutional court, seized control of key public institutions by packing them with party loyalists and extending mandates much beyond the term of parliamentchanged the electoral law, and requires two-thirds majorities to change some of its policies.
In Romania, the breaches of democracy were less subtle. In May a new centre-left parliamentary majority suspended the centre-right president. It used emergency ordinances to remove constitutional checks on the impeachment procedure, including a weakening of the constitutional court and a lifting of the 50 percent participation quorum for the referendum required to validate the impeachment.
Centre-right governments and party groups in the European Parliament made it clear that they were opposed to using Article 7 against the Hungarian government.
Without this threat, the EU was unable to challenge the broader underlying problems. The Commission was merely able to bring about some incremental changes on isolated issues that had a separate basis in EU law and made it possible to use infringement procedures to obtain compliance.
By contrast, the Romanian government complied fairly swiftly and comprehensively with the demands of EU institutions to redress the breaches of democratic principles.
However, it might depend on a fairly demanding constellation of favourable conditions that make it possible both to use social pressure effectively and to make material threats.
EU attitudes towards enlargement, ten years on Ten years after the first eastern enlargement, attitudes in the EU towards further enlargement — both among publics and among Member State governments — have become noticeably more negative.Oct 20, · EU expansion - its effect on transport.
There are I think just 3 major net contributors to the EU pot and the economy of the largest (Germany) is far from healthy! What effect do you think adding another 10 underdeveloped countries to the membership will have on the UK's contributions and the prospects of us ever having a decent transport infrastru cture?
"The growth of commerce and industry led to the technological advances, which in turn stimulated, and were stimulated by science.” (p. ) The European scientific revolution was fueled by the blending of “liberal” and “servile” arts, in other words, science and technology.
Nov 16, · Revolution and the growth of industrial society, – Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events. The French Revolution broke out in , and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades. World War I began in Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, culture, and diplomacy during the late 19th .
economic effects of the European Union ’s (EU) trade policies. Decision-making on foreign trade policy is largely centralised at the EU level and expansion of the European Union has speeded up or slowed down such efforts is impossible to tell.
Many commen-. Industrial Revolution Technology Essays - The European Expansion and its Effects on the World. The record of European expansion contains pages as grim as any in history.
The African slave trade—begun by the Africans and the Arabs and turned into a profitable seaborne enterprise by the Portuguese, Dutch, and English—is a series of horrors, from the rounding up of the slaves by local chieftains in Africa, through their transportation across the Atlantic, to their sale in the Indies.